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There were 353,441 Germans in Kazakhstan and 21,472 in Kyrgyzstan (1999); In the Russian Empire before Catherine the Great, Germans were strongly represented among royalty, aristocracy, large land owners, military officers and the upper echelons of the imperial service, engineers, scientists, artists, physicians and the bourgeoisie in general.

The 1935 "Breyer Map" shows the distribution of German settlements in what became central Poland.Catherine II's declaration freed German immigrants from military service (imposed on native Russians) and from most taxes.It placed the new arrivals outside of Russia's feudal hierarchy and granted them considerable internal autonomy.However, depending on geography and other circumstances, many Russian-Germans spoke Russian as their first or second language.During the 19th century, many of the early arrivals came to identify primarily as Russians, and particularly during and after the Napoleonic Wars.

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