Elucidating the mechanism

Indeed, the vasodilator prostaglandin E1 has been shown to increase early absorption of human insulin in patients with diabetes ().The aim of this study was to further evaluate the impact of niacinamide on insulin aspart absorption kinetics and to investigate whether the accelerated absorption facilitated by niacinamide could be the result of decreased insulin aspart self-association, increased blood perfusion of the depot or both.They had free access to water and were fed a standard diet according to their weight.Pens contained wood shavings, straw and toys for environmental enrichment.Niacinamide mediates the acceleration of initial insulin aspart absorption, and the mechanism of action appears to be multifaceted.Niacinamide increases the initial abundance of insulin aspart monomers and transport of insulin aspart after subcutaneous administration, and also mediates a transient, local vasodilatory effect.

Niacinamide increased the rate of early insulin aspart absorption in pigs, and pharmacokinetic modelling revealed this effect to be most pronounced up to ~30–40 min after injection in humans.Bolus insulin therapy aims to mimic the normal mealtime insulin response to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia while avoiding hypoglycemia.Current rapid-acting insulin analogues, such as insulin aspart, have been developed to have faster absorption profiles and provide an earlier onset of action than regular human insulin (RHI) ().Fast-acting insulin aspart (faster aspart) is a novel formulation of insulin aspart containing two additional excipients: niacinamide, to increase early absorption, and L-arginine, to optimize stability.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of niacinamide on insulin aspart absorption and to investigate the mechanism of action underlying the accelerated absorption.

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