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Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128.
The Kingdom of Portugal was later proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, and independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain.
The region's pre-Roman language was Gallaecian Celtic.
Some French scholars believe the name may have come from 'Portus Gallus', the port of the Gauls or Celts.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe.
The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale.